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Understanding the Fibre Network Differences Among European Regions

Updated: Jun 6

"High-speed, low-latency data connectivity, and rich, immersive digital content is influencing and shaping the future of societies and industries."

Ana Pesovic

Marketing Director, Nokia

Over the last five years, the amount of fibre connections in European Union households has tripled. According to Idate and FTTH Council Europe figures, roughly 60 million people and 118 million homes will have access to this fast broadband technology before 2021.

In 2022, it was expected to witness a 25% surge in the numbers, translating to 75 million linked households. Furthermore, experts predict the figures will soar again in 2023, marking an impressive growth trajectory. Thus, it is critical to understand the current conditions of such connectivity in different regions. In this piece, we will summarise the current status of fibre optic connectivity.

Explore its conditions in the UK, Italy, and Germany. We will highlight the progress achieved, the challenges encountered, and the plans for future expansion.

What is the current state of fibre connectivity in Germany, the UK, and Italy?

Europe has made notable progress in expanding its optical fibre connectivity, but significant gaps persist, particularly in more substantial countries such as Germany, Italy, and the UK. The FTTH Council Europe report shows that a considerable number of households have not yet been reached by fibre technology in these nations. For instance, operators in Germany need to cover 32.5 million households with fiber, while in the UK, the number stands at 21 million, and in Italy, it is 10 million as of September 2021. Further investments and efforts are needed to bridge this gap and provide seamless fibre connectivity to all regional households.

Germany needs to catch up to some of its European neighbours in fibre connections, with only around 4% of households accessing full fibre broadband. However, the German government has recently announced plans to invest €50 billion to expand fibre connectivity and improve digital infrastructure. The UK has similarly low levels of fibre connections as Germany does.

A lot needs to be done to pass all households with fibre in many countries

According to the latest data, the availability of fibre optic connectivity in the UK has reached a significant milestone, with 12.4 million households. It means that 42% of all homes can now access this service. This represents a remarkable year-on-year increase of 4.3 million premises, a 14-percentage point surge from the previous years. Notably, this is the highest growth rate in the UK since the roll-out of full-fibre broadband began. The sustained increase in fibre connections can be attributed to the growing demand for high-speed broadband in various sectors, including businesses, education, and everyday life.

Compared to many other European countries, Italy falls behind in both the availability and utilisation of fibre networks. The percentage of Italian households connected to fibre stands at a mere 7.8%, significantly lower than the average of 26.9% across Western Europe. This disparity in fibre channel connectivity has led to considerable challenges in the country, where many households lack access to high-speed broadband. Despite some efforts by the government and private entities to address this issue, the gap between Italy and other Western European nations remains wide. That indicates the need for more significant investments and initiatives to accelerate the deployment of fibre networks.

Key factors influencing disparities in fibre connectivity across Europe

Government policies

Government policies and regulations can affect the deployment and adoption of fibre networks. For instance, some countries have implemented favourable policies and regulatory frameworks encouraging investment in fibre-optic networks. The European Commission has outlined specific connectivity targets for Europe under the European Gigabit Society initiative. By 2025, the following objectives should be met:

  • Ensure gigabit connectivity with minimum speeds of 1 Gbps or 1000 Mbps for all primary socio-economic drivers, including schools, research facilities, and hospitals.

  • Provide uninterrupted 5G coverage for all urban areas and primary terrestrial transport paths.

  • Ensure that all European households can access connectivity with minimum speeds of 100 Mbps.

Meeting these targets would ensure that Europe has the infrastructure to support the increasing demand for high-speed connectivity across all sectors. These targets are crucial to driving innovation, supporting economic growth and development, and improving the quality of life for people across Europe.


The state of existing infrastructure in Europe can influence the deployment of fibre networks. Countries with older and less developed infrastructure may require more investment to upgrade and transition to fibre networks. For example, countries like France and Germany rely significantly on copper networks, which can be a barrier to deploying fibre connections.

Geography and population density

Despite some progress, there is still a considerable amount of work to address the digital divide between Europe's countryside and urban areas. Countries with larger and sparsely populated areas may face more significant challenges in rolling out optical fibre connectivity than those with smaller and more densely populated regions. For example, countries like Norway and Finland have vast rural areas with dispersed populations, posing challenges to deploying fibre networks. Another example is the contrast between Spain and Germany. While over 60% of sparsely populated regions of Spain have access to rural fibre, only a meagre 9.8% of Germany's rural areas enjoy the same level of broadband coverage.

Consumer demand

The level of demand for high-speed broadband among consumers and businesses can also drive fibre network deployment. The COVID-19 pandemic brought about a massive surge in demand for broadband connectivity. People worldwide rely on fast internet access to work, study, and entertain themselves from the safety of their homes. The OECD reported that telecom operators experienced a notable uptick in internet traffic by up to 60% during the lockdown periods. This underscores the critical role of high-speed internet and highlights the need for continued investment in robust and reliable broadband infrastructure to support the digital economy.

Key factors influencing disparities in fibre connectivity across Europe

Future trends in fibre connectivity across Europe

The future of fibre connectivity in Europe is promising, with several trends expected to shape the evolution of this technology. One of the key drivers of this growth is the ongoing expansion of fibre optic networks. As the demand for high-speed internet connectivity continues to rise, telecom companies invest heavily in deploying fibre infrastructure, particularly in urban areas. The development of 5G technology is also expected to facilitate this expansion by enabling the deployment of fibre-to-the-antenna (FTTA) connections at a lower cost.

Another major trend is the growing emphasis on bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas. Governments and regulatory bodies are increasingly taking steps to promote fair access to broadband infrastructure, focusing on remote and underserved regions. This includes providing incentives and subsidies to telecom operators to invest in fibre networks in these areas.

Furthermore, the proliferation of IoT devices drives the demand for fibre optic connectivity. As smart homes, connected cars, and other IoT-enabled devices become more prevalent, reliable and high-speed internet connections are becoming increasingly essential. This is expected to fuel further growth in the deployment of fibre infrastructure, with the potential to transform the way people live, work, and interact with technology in the years to come.


In conclusion, the expansion of fibre connectivity in Europe has made significant progress over the past few years. However, there is still a considerable gap, particularly in Germany, Italy, and the UK. Governments and private entities must continue to invest in deploying and upgrading fibre networks to ensure seamless connectivity for all households. Government policies, infrastructure, geography, population density, and consumer demand are critical in expanding fibre connectivity across Europe. Meeting the targets set out by the European Commission's European Gigabit Society initiative will go a long way in bridging the digital divide and promoting economic growth and development across the continent.


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